Management Information System (MIS)| TPS | CRM | POM

Management information system (MIS) is a computerized database of financial information organized and programmed in such a way that it produces regular reports on operations for every level of management in a company. 

Management Information System produces  the following reports:
• Routine/Scheduled Reports
Routine periodic reports are produced at scheduled intervals, ranging from hourly quality control reports to reports on monthly absenteeism rates.

• Ad-Hoc(Demand) Reports
 Managers frequently need special information, which is not included in the routine reports, or they need the same information that is included in the routine reports, but at different times. Such out-of-the routine reports are called ad-hoc reports. They also may include requests for drill down reports, which show a greater level of detail; key-indicator reports, which summarize the performance of critical activities; and comparative reports,which compare performances of different departments.
• Exception Reports
 These kind of reports include only information that exceeds certain threshold standards. refer pg. 238 for information flow diagram.

Transaction Processing System

A transaction process system (TPS) is an information processing system for business transactions involving the collection, modification and retrieval of all transaction data. Characteristics of a TPS include performance, reliability and consistency. TPS is also known as transaction processing or real-time processing.

Characteristics of a TPS
• TPS Processes large amounts of data.
• It needs high processing speed due to high volume.
• Sources of data are mostly internal and the outputs is intended mainly for internal audience.
• Processes information on a regular basis.
• Requires large storage.
• Monitors and collects data once generated.
• Input and output data are structured and are formatted in a standard fashion.
• High level of detail.
• Requires high Processing reliability.
• Ability to query files and database.

 The processes of TPS:

Batch Processing:
 Transactions are collected as they occur and are placed in groups or batches. The system then processes and prepares the batches periodically.

Online processing
Data are processed as soon as a transaction occurs.

Hybrid system 
Combination of batch and online processing, it can collect data as they occur but process them at a specified interval.

TPS Tasks
A. Order processing
B. The ledger
C. Accounts payable and receivable
D. Inventory Management E. Payroll
F. Periodic reports and statements

Customer Relationship Management (CRM):

Customer relationship management (CRM) is a term that refers to practices, strategies and technologies that companies use to manage and analyze customer interactions and data throughout the customer lifecycle, with the goal of improving business relationships with customers, assisting in customer retention and driving sales growth. CRM systems are designed to compile information on customers across different channels or points of contact between the customer and the company which could include the company’s website, telephone, live chat, direct mail, marketing materials and social media. CRM systems can also give customer-facing staff detailed information on customers’ personal information, purchase history, buying preferences and concerns. 

There are five common steps in CRM. They are: 

A. Make it easy for customers to do business with you. 
B. Focus on the end-customer for your products and services. 
C. Redesign your customer-facing business processes from the end-customer’s point of view. 
D. Wire your company for profit. 
E. Foster customer loyalty

Production and Operations Management Systems (POM)

The POM function in an organization is responsible for the processes that transform inputs into useful outputs. The POM area is diversified in comparison to the other functional areas and so are its supporting information systems. For instance, manufacturing companies use different processes than service organizations and a hospital operates much differently from a university.

Logistics and Materials Management
This deals with ordering, purchasing, inbound and outbound shipping activities. Such activities are a good example of processes that cross several functional departments. For example, scanners and voice technologies can support inspection and robots can be used to perform distribution and materials handling.

Inventory Management
This determines how much inventory to keep. Once management has made decisions about how much to order and when, an information system can track the level of inventory for each item that needs to be controlled. When the inventory falls to a certain level (i.e. reorder point), inventory software can automatically generate a purchase order

Quality Control
Quality Control systems provide information about the quality of incoming material and parts, as well as the quality of in-process semi finished and finished products. Quality-control software can be a standalone system or part of a Total Quality Management (TQM) system.

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