Network Topology

Network Topology is the schematic description of a network arrangement, connecting various nodes(sender and receiver) through lines of connection. Some basic types of Network topology are :

Bus Topology:

• Bus topology is a network type in where every computer and network device is connected to single cable.
• It transmits data only in one direction.
• Every device is connected to a single cable
• It is cost effective.
• Cable required is least compared to other network topology.
• It is used in small networks.
• It is easy to understand.
• It is easy to expand joining two cables together.
• Cables fails then whole network fails.
• If network traffic is heavy or nodes are more the performance of the network decreases.
• Cable has a limited length.
• It is slower than the ring topology.
Network Topology
Bus Topology

Ring Topology:

 • It is called ring topology because it forms a ring as each computer is connected to another computer, with the last one connected to the first. Exactly two neighbours for each device. 
• A number of repeaters are used and the transmission is unidirectional. 
• Date is transferred in a sequential manner that is bit by bit.
• Transmitting network is not affected by high traffic or by adding more nodes, as only the nodes having tokens can transmit data. 
• It is cheaper to install and expand. 
• Troubleshooting is difficult in ring topology. 
• Adding or deleting the computers disturbs the network activity. 
• Failure of one computer disturbs the whole network.
Ring Topology
Ring Topology

Star Topology:

   In this type of topology all the computers are connected to a single hub through a cable.
• This hub is the central node and all others nodes are connected to the central node.
• Every node has its own dedicated connection to the hub.
• It acts as a repeater for data flow.
• It can be used with twisted pair, Optical Fibre or coaxial cable.
• It is fast performance with few nodes and low network traffic.
• Hub can be upgraded easily.
• It is easy to troubleshoot.
• It is easy to setup and modify.
• Only that node is affected which has failed rest of the nodes can work smoothly.
• It's cost of installation is high.
• It is expensive to use.
• If the hub is affected then the whole network is stopped because all the nodes depend on the hub. Performance is based on the hub that is it depends on its capacity.
Star Topology
Star Topology

Mesh Topology:

It is a point-to-point connection to other nodes or devices. is carried only between two devices or nodes to which it is connected.
Types of Mesh Topology:
a. Partial Mesh Topology :
In this topology some of the systems are connected in the same fashion as mesh topology but some devices are only connected to two or three devices.
b. Full Mesh Topology : Each and every nodes or devices are connected to each other.

Features of Mesh Topology:
 - It is fully connected.
 - It is robust.
 - It is not flexible.

Advantages of Mesh Topology:
 - Each connection can carry its own data load.
 - It is robust.
 - Fault is diagnosed easily.
 - Provides security and privacy.

Disadvantages of Mesh Topology:
 - Installation and configuration is difficult.
 - Cabling cost is more.
 - Bulk wiring is required.
Mesh Topology
Mesh Topology

Hybrid Topology:

  It is two different types of topologies which is a mixture of two or more topologies.
• For example if in an office in one department ring topology is used and in another star topology is       used, connecting these topologies will result in Hybrid Topology (ring topology and star topology).
• Features of Hybrid Topology It is a combination of two or topologies Inherits the advantages and disadvantages of the topologies included.

Advantages of Hybrid Topology:
 - It is reliable as Error detecting and trouble shooting is easy.
 - It is effective.
 - It is scalable as size can be increased easily.
 - It is flexible.

Disadvantages of Hybrid Topology:
 - It is complex in design and Costly.

             - Computer Network and Types of Network | Communication Media

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