Planning Production | Automated Design Work | HRM

Planning Production and Operations

source: pexels

Some of the major areas of planning and their computerized support are:
Materials Requirement Planning (MRP):

MRP is a production planning, scheduling and inventory control system used to manage manufacturing process. An MRP system is intended to simultaneously meet three objectives:
• Ensure materials are available for production and products are available for delivery to customers.
• Maintain the lowest possible material and product levels in store.
• Plan manufacturing activities, delivery schedules and purchasing activities.

• Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II):
 MRP II is an integrated computer system that connects the regular MRP to other functional areas, especially finance and human resources. It can also be defined as a method for the effective planning of all resources of a manufacturing company. Ideally, it addresses operational planning in units, financial planning, and has a simulation capability to answer ”what-if” questions and extension of closed-loop MRP. It helps to determine the costs of parts and the cash flow needed to pay for parts. It also estimates cost of labor, tools, equipment repair and energy. Finally it provides a detailed computerized budget.

• Just-in-time systems
Just in time (JIT) inventory is a management system in which materials or products are produced or acquired only as demand requires, thus minimizing waste of all kinds (space, labor, materials, energy and so on). It is a methodology that is aimed primarily at reducing flow times within production as well as response times from suppliers and to customers. Just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing is a production model in which items are created to meet demand, not created in surplus or in advance of need. The main purpose of JIT production is to avoid the waste associated with overproduction, waiting and excess inventory

• Project Management
 A project is usually a one-time effort composed of many interrelated activities, comprising of specific set of operations and designed to accomplish a singular goal. It costs a substantial amount of money, and lasts from weeks to years. The management of project is enhanced
by project management tools such as Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and Critical Path Method (CPM).
• Short-term schedules
 Operation managers schedule jobs and employees on a daily or weekly basis with the support of information systems. For example, bar chart and Gantt charts can be used to show scheduled and actual production times. Also the complex scheduling situations can be supported by DSS or expert systems.

Automated Design Work and Manufacturing

Computer-aided design (CAD)
CAD is a system that enables drawings to be constructed on a computer screen and subsequently stored, manipulated and updated electronically. It helps to enhance the designer?s productivity, speeds up the design process, reduces design errors and reduces the number of designers needed to perform the same amount of work.

Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
CAM uses computer-aided techniques to plan and control a production facility. Computer-aided process planning, numerical control part programming, robotics programming etc are such techniques. When CAD feeds design and testing information to a CAM system, the combined system is referred to as CAD/CAM.

Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
CIM is a concept about the implementation of various integrated computer systems in factory automation. It has following goals:
• Simplification of manufacturing technologies
• Automation of manufacturing processes by integration of information technologies.
• Integration and coordination via computer hardware and software of all aspects of design, manufacturing and related functions.

Human Resources Management Systems:

Human Resource Management (HR) is an important task that starts with the hiring of an employee and ends with his or her retirement or departure. It includes following tasks:
• Recruitment
• Position inventory
• Recruitment using Internet
• Employee selection
• Human Resources Maintenance and Development

Some of the activities supported by IT in human resource maintenance are as follows:
• Training and human resources development
• Performance evaluation
• Turnover, tardiness and absenteeism analyses
• Human Resources management and Planning

Information Technology can help in managing human resource in following fields:
• Personnel files and skills inventory
• Benefits administration
• Government reports
• Personnel planning
• Succession planning and implementation
• Labor-management negotiations

            Management Information System (MIS)| TPS | CRM | POM
           Computer Network and Types of Network | Communication Media
           Data Warehouse | Advantages | Components | Uses
           Entity Relationship Modeling | Database Normalization and Data Models
          Database and Database Management System

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